Livadia Palace is the famous summer residence of the last Russian Emperor Nicholas II. The palace was designed by the Russian architect N. Krasnov in the Italian Renaissance style with some features of Byzantine, Arabian and Gothic architecture in addition. Built in 1911 from white Inkerman stone this palace of the imperial family is often referred to as the White Palace.
On June, 28th in Livadia, the former Tzar`s estate the first in the world sanatorium (health-SPA) for peasants was opened. They came here from all the republics of the Soviet Union rested and got treatment free of charge.
The Big Livadia Palace, where in February, 1945, the Crimean (Yalta) Conference of the Heads of the Governments of the Three Allied Powers united in anti-Hitler coalition - the USSR, the USA and Great Britain was held, has become now a memorial complex.
The Conference had a great importance for the destinies of all the post war world. The delegation of the USSR was headed by the Chairman of the Council of the People`s Commissars Joseph Stalin, that of the USA - by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Great Britain - by Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill. The questions of the final defeat of Nazi Germany, of the creation of the United Nations Organization, of the USSR`s entering the war against militaristic Japan ant others were discussed. A plaque commemorating the event of the world historical importance has been affixed to the building of the Livadia Palace.
The Conference was held three months before the end of the war. About two years and a half Yalta and the South Coast were within the zone of the hostilities.
During the guided visit of the palace you will see the restored White Hall of the conference, which is remarkable for its size and refined gorgeous molding of the ceiling, the Czar's Gala Study and the Headquarters of the USA President during the conference. Yalta private guide Sergey will escort you into the Czar's family personal apartments on the first and the second floors of the palace. The exposition includes numerous photos of the imperial family, fragments of decoration, documents, original furniture. You will learn more of the history of the Romanovs, who used to enjoy immensely their stay in Yalta. Before leaving the palace you will have an opportunity to make a short visit to a shopping arcade for browsing and, should you desire you might purchase some nice mementos of your visit.
In February 1945 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, American President Franklin Roosevelt and Soviet Secretary-General Joseph Stalin spent in Livadia Palace seven days, what became known as the Yalta Conference. That was the second meeting of the "Big Tree" after the Tehran Conference in 1943. The third and the las meeting of three countries leaders was in Potsdam, 1945. The "Big Three" met in Livadia's Gala Dining Room (White Hall). Tsar`s Nikolas II official Study became Roosevelt's bedroom. And Roosevelt`s stady was organized in Tsar`s Waiting Room, just five meters from the White Hall. The Conference lasted one week.
The Yalta Declaration, issued on the last day, on February 11th 1945, completed talks and discussions. The agenda of the Conference included several very important for the coalition questions: the end of the war in Europe and the defeat of Germany; the division of Germany into four zones of occupation; reparations and idemnity from Germany; Polish question and Soviet control over this Eastern European territory; Yugoslavian question. The Declaration also announced that a "conference of United Nations" would be held in San Francisco in April, 1945.
The Potsdam Conference in Germany (July 17th - August 2nd, 1945) became the logical continuation of the Crimean Conference.
Private tour guide historian Sergey Tsarapora will show you the round table where the Big Three and members of delegations sat; three chairs for the three leaders; and the Tudor style Billiard Room where the decisive documents were signed. Many historical pictures are displayed on the walls. In the White Hall on the special desk under glass there are original copies of Soviet newspaper "Pravda" [true], dated 13th February, 1945, reporting the outcome of the conference. And, sure, you will visit legendary Italian (Venetian) Courtyard, where was made several famous final pictures of the "Big Tree".
On the second floor of the palace you will visit private apartments of the last Czar`s family: private Study of Nicholas II, Bedroom of the Royal Couple, private Library, Music Salon, Family Dining Room, Study Room of Grand Princesses Maria and Anastasia, private rooms of Grand Princesses Olga and Tatiana.
Not far from the Palace is situated the Romanov`s private Church, constructed in 19th century. The palace church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross of the Romanovs was built in 1863 by architect I. Monnigetti under the Supreme Order of Her Majesty Empress Maria Alexandrovna. It is a part of a single architectural ensemble of the White Palace in Livadia. In 1911, during the reign of Emperor Nicolas II, the church was reconstructed by the architect N. Krasnov. For the first time in this church St. John of Kronstadt performed the funeral service for tsar Alexander III the Peacemaker, who passed away at Livadia in the autumn of 1894. Here the last Russian Autocrat Nicolas II pledged allegiance to the Russian Throne. His bride, Alice of Hessen, a Lutheran, was confirmed into the Orthodox Church. She was anointed and named as Alexandara Feodorovna. In the 1920s the church was closed and the building was turned over to non-secular purposes. In 1991 the church was reopened, services were resumed and restoration has been put in hand.
The Yalta Conference Documents: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/wwii/yalta.asp
The Yalta ConferenceProtocol of Proceedings:
The Polish Question at the Yalta Conference:
Agreement Relating to Prisoners of War and Civilians Liberated by Forces Operating Under Soviet Command and Forces Operating Under United States of AmericaCommand: