The first archaeological records of human life on the territory of Ukraine date back to the Paleolithic Era or Stone Age, from approximately 280,000 B.C. until 1,500 B.C. when metal objects began to appear. The earliest inhabitants were hunters and gatherers who fashioned tools from charcoal, flint and stone. Artifacts from this period have been found in the Podillia, Volyn and Kharkiv regions, Southern Crimea and along the areas of the Dnipro rapids and the Donets and Kuban Rivers.
In the Neolithic or New Stone Age (6,000 - 2,000 B.C.), man learned to keep cattle and cultivate the soil. He began to live in villages and developed a tribal social structure. One earliest and most extensively researched was the site discovered near the village of Trypillia in the Kyiv region. Artifacts recovered from this site include pottery and dishes embellished with flowing spiral designs. Similar sites of this Trypillian culture were found along the Dnister, Buh and Prut Rivers. Ukrainian culture has its roots in this Trypillian culture. Towards the end of the Neolithic Era, the first metal implements (copper, brass, and later iron) appeared along the coast of the Black Sea and the trade routes along the Dnipro River. Many are preserved in graves of the "coffin box" culture (so called because the graves were made of stone plates) in the upper Boh and Horyn Rivers.
Ukraine and Crimea private guide