Historical cultural reservation "Busha” is the
only reservation in Vinnitsya region. It was established in August, 2000, due
to the initiative of the local authorities. The reservation’s area is up to
6.68 hectares. In the territory and protection area of thee reservation there
are about ten archeological monuments dated the 4th thousand B.C. –
the 7th century A.D., pre-Christian and Christian rock temple (the 5th
– 16th cent.) with the unique artistic relief, remains of fortress
and underground passages (the 16th – 17th cent.), a city
hall (the 16th cent.) and a cemetery (the 18th – 19th
cent.). There is also a historical sculpture park in the reserve, where the
international gathering of sculptors-stonemasons "Podillya Guard Talisman”
takes place annually.
The most famous archeological monument in Busha
is a temple, carved in a rock, with a unique elaborate perget. In 1824, a noble
man Romuald ostoya-Ovsiany discovered this monument, and he left a sign on the
perget to prove it. Professor V. Antonovych started studying the monument in
1883, and the rock perget became well-known to many scientists.
In the perget, a leafless tree is carved, and
on one of the branches a cock sits. Under the tree, there is a man kneeling.
Behind the human silhouette, on an eminence, an imposing deer stands. In the
perget’s top, almost in the middle, a rectangular frame is carved, where faint
remains of a four-line sign can be seen. Probably, it explains the story of the
monument. On the opposite to the perget, on the vertical rock’s surface, there
is an ancient niche. It must have been used as a place for the pagan offerings
– food and drinks could be placed there.
A scientific discussion on the perget’s creation
date lasts for more than a hundred years. Its composition’s meaning, and the
artistic traditions that affected its form, are argued as well. One thing is
undoubted – this is an artistic work, and it relates to the tradition of the
Slavic folk carving. In the 16th century in Busha they started to
build a castle in the midst of the cape, created by the Murafa and the Bushnka
rivers. Later on, an engineer Guillaume de Beauplan described the Busha Castle
to have 6 towers, with a powder magazine in each one. The towers were connected
between each other, with the underground passages. Only a defensive tower of
the Busha Castle has remained. It is built of the rock parts, there are two
tiers, a cellar, and a hipped roof.
The castle gate was in the northern wall, near
the two observation towers (one of them has remained). The castle walls and
towers were suitable to military engines and were good for the fire fights.
That’s why Polish officers compared the Busha fort to fortress in Kamiyanets.
At the beginning of the 17th century Busha was declared to be a
city. In 1629 over 2000 people lived there, and it was quite a large city in
Bratslav region of Podnistroviya area.
On November 18-20, 1654, the troops led by S.
Pototsky and S. Charnetsky surrounded the castle. Polish soldiers killed the
most part of surrounded Cossacks. When they almost took the castle, a widow of
the Cossack leader Zavisniy, Maryana, burnt a powder magazine. That caused
explosion that killed her and the people in the castle, as well as great many
Polish warriors who attacked the castle. These events are described in a novel
"The Busha Defense” by M. Starytskiy. After those tragic events the city
actually stopped existence, and its revival lasted for a hundred years. But the
Busha Castle wasn’t restored.
Apart the archeological monuments, Busha is
famous for geological monument of the national importance, Haidamatskiy Yar.
Its total area is 96 hectares, and it’s situated in the south of Vinnytska
oblast, in the valley of the Dnistro tributary – the Bushanka River, on the border
of Chernivetskiy and Yampilskiy districts. This is a forest with beautiful
trees. Nowadays the old trees have proper names (Grandpa, Thunderer) and are
protected by the government. The modern name of this monument appeared in the
18th cent. It reflects the historical events known as
Haidamatskiy Yar’s geological landscape is
unique, as the river has made an open-cut in deposits of limestone, slate and
sandstone, and has reached about 120 metres depth. Weathered stone is tricky
and picturesque, it’s shaped as columns, poles, queer animals and mythological
Yalta - Sevastopol private tour guide Sergey Tsarapora